Sunday, 15 July 2012
Principle of Management-Introduction and History of management
“Management is the art of knowing what you want to do and then seeing that it is done in the best and cheapest way”.
Management entails the co-ordination of human effort and material resource toward the organization to achieve its objectives.
The objective of the any enterprise is accomplished through the use of resources.
Management involves an organized effort to achieve the objectives. Management is the brain of the enterprises. Management helps in predicting what is going to happen in future that will influence the working of an enterprise.
Definitions of management:
According to Dalton E. Mc Farland:
“Management is the fundamental integrating and operating mechanism underlying organized efforts”.
According to Dr. William R.spriegel,
“Management is an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out the board policies laid down by the administration. It is that function of an enterprise which concerns itself with the direction and control of various activities to attain the business objectives”.
According To James A.E. Stone,
“Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling the efforts of organization members and using all other organizational resources to achieve stated organizational goals.”
However, a precise definition of management is not so simple because the term management is used in a variety of ways, being a new discipline; it has drawn concepts and principles from a number of disciplines such as statistics, economics, sociology, anthropology and so on. The result is that each group contribution has treaded management differently.
· Sociologists have treated it as a class or group of person.
· Economists have treaded management as a factor of production.
Naturally, these entire divergent groups view the nature and scope of management from own point of view.
History of Management:
The word manage comes from the Italian word Maneggiare - means to handle (Handle the problem with the help of some tools); which is turn derives from the Latin Manus-means Hand.
The French word mesnagement influenced the development, become management in the last of 17th century and the beginning of 18th century.
The concept of organization and administration is old as human civilization but systematic study of management which started close to 19th century; the contributions in the field of management came from variety of sources.
In the Egypt- 1300, B.C. Confucius’s Parable gave suggestion for proper public administration to industry to select capable, honest and unselfish human power.
Kautilya has included principle of state administration in 320B.C. Roman Catholic Church. He introduced the concept of staff personal in church administration.
In the beginning of 20th century, Frederick Winslow Taylor, M.E., D. Sc., join industry as a Mechanical Engineer and introduce the Concept of Scientific Management in USA.
Scientific Management was concerned to improving the operational efficiency at the shop-floor level.
IN Taylor words- “the Scientific Management is concerned with knowing exactly what you want men to do and then see in that they do it in the best and cheapest way”.
Taylor has emphasis on solving managerial problem in a scientific way, and produces the principle of scientific management.
Notes- this post shared here are base on my study in case you find anything wrong and missing points than please bring it to my notice.